What is Governed in Cities?

What is Governed in Cities: Residential Investment Landscapes and the Governance and Regulation of Housing Production. This project examines the relationships between contemporary investment flows into the housing markets of major European cities and the arrangements and public policy instruments that are designed to govern them.

Most recent blog posts

Market maturity and investment in London’s Student Accommodation sector

No longer ‘alternative’? One of the most startling findings from the London team’s exploration of investment into residential real estate was the...

Planning for residential ‘value’ in London?

Image by David SamuelIn a seminar for the Department of Land Economy at the University of Cambridge, London WHIG team member Nicola Livingstone...

Fragmented governance architectures in Amsterdam

In a new publication in Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space, WHIG researchers Tuna Tasan-Kok and Sara Özogul examine entrepreneurial...

Between a Rock and a Hard Place

In a new publication in the journal Planning Practice and Research, WHIG researcher Sara Özogul investigates how planners in Amsterdam learn from...

The Geographies of Viability Planning

In a recent new publication Whig researchers Jess Ferm and Mike Raco explore the geographies of viability-driven planning reform in England.Drawing...

Research Objectives


Document and describe the key public and private actors involved in the production of housing, and offer a thorough comparative picture of the scale, origin, and nature of international and national private investment flows into residential property.


Evaluate the impacts of new investment landscapes on the governance of the residential built environment through case-studies of major urban development projects, to identify who ‘governs’ and what is governed and with what effects.


Critically assess and compare the formal and informal regulatory structures, governance processes and policy instruments that shape the production of housing.


Examine and compare how power is exercised and enacted in the production of housing and what patterns of conflict and consensus exist between market, state, and civil society actors.


Assess the social and economic impacts of regulation and investment on the production of new residential built environments.


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