What is Governed in Cities?

What is Governed in Cities: Residential Investment Landscapes and the Governance and Regulation of Housing Production. This project examines the relationships between contemporary investment flows into the housing markets of major European cities and the arrangements and public policy instruments that are designed to govern them.

Most recent blog posts

The Geographies of Viability Planning

In a recent new publication Whig researchers Jess Ferm and Mike Raco explore the geographies of viability-driven planning reform in England.Drawing...

One and the same?

Our new article in the Journal of Planning Literature confirms that there is limited academic engagement with investor stratifications. Furthermore,...

Unpacking Cognitive Biases against Property Market Actors

On 6 February 2020, the WHIG Amsterdam team organised an interactive session at the Dutch Research Council’s Synergy ’20 conference, bringing...

Changing actors and investment landscapes of the property industry

Eleven students completed their master thesis in a WHIG-related thesis project group at the University of Amsterdam.

Towards an understanding of the role of debt

Given our focus on investment into residential real estate, an essential dimension is understanding how housing fits more broadly within the...

Research Objectives


Document and describe the key public and private actors involved in the production of housing, and offer a thorough comparative picture of the scale, origin, and nature of international and national private investment flows into residential property.


Evaluate the impacts of new investment landscapes on the governance of the residential built environment through case-studies of major urban development projects, to identify who ‘governs’ and what is governed and with what effects.


Critically assess and compare the formal and informal regulatory structures, governance processes and policy instruments that shape the production of housing.


Examine and compare how power is exercised and enacted in the production of housing and what patterns of conflict and consensus exist between market, state, and civil society actors.


Assess the social and economic impacts of regulation and investment on the production of new residential built environments.


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